The Nuclear Envelope, Signalling and the Nuclear Membrane – Lamins and Ageing- Good news emerging?

Studies have implicated Lamins in human disease for years. First in cancer, then in muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy, then ten years ago, in 2003 in premature ageing. Most recently, last year, Lamins have been implicated in normal ageing and Nuclear Antibodies against Lamins are now considered as universal markers of the ageing process. Lamins ( designated A,B and C ) … Continue reading

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Nestin Is Not Essential for Development of the CNS But Required for Dispersion of Acetylcholine Receptor Clusters at the Area of Neuromuscular Junctions

Abstract Nestin is expressed in many different progenitors during development including those of the CNS, heart, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The adult expression is mainly restricted to the subependymal zone and dentate gyrus of the brain, the neuromuscular junction, and renal podocytes. In addition, this intermediate filament protein has served as a marker of neural stem/progenitor cells for close to … Continue reading

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Cellular mechanisms of cardiomyopathy

Abstract The heart exhibits remarkable adaptive responses to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. When compensatory responses are not sustainable, cardiac dysfunction occurs, leading to cardiomyopathy. The many forms of cardiomyopathy exhibit a set of overlapping phenotypes reflecting the limited range of compensatory responses that the heart can use. These include cardiac hypertrophy, induction … Continue reading

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Formation of the postmitotic nuclear envelope from extended ER cisternae precedes nuclear pore assembly

Lu et al. 194 (3): 425 Abstract During mitosis, the nuclear envelope merges with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and nuclear pore complexes are disassembled. In a current model for reassembly after mitosis, the nuclear envelope forms by a reshaping of ER tubules. For the assembly of pores, two major models have been proposed. In the insertion model, nuclear pore complexes … Continue reading

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Visualization of dynein-dependent microtubule gliding at the cell cortex: implications for spindle positioning

Abstract Dynein motors move along the microtubule (MT) lattice in a processive “walking” manner. In the one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, dynein is required for spindle-pulling forces during mitosis. Posteriorly directed spindle-pulling forces are higher than anteriorly directed forces, and this imbalance results in posterior spindle displacement during anaphase and an asymmetric division. To address how dynein could be asymmetrically activated … Continue reading

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A cell-autonomous requirement for neutral sphingomyelinase 2 in bone mineralization

Abstract A deletion mutation called fro (fragilitas ossium) in the murine Smpd3 (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3) gene leads to a severe skeletal dysplasia. Smpd3 encodes a neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase2), which cleaves sphingomyelin to generate bioactive lipid metabolites. We examined endochondral ossification in embryonic day 15.5 fro/fro mouse embryos and observed impaired apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes and severely undermineralized cortical bones in … Continue reading

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Formation of the postmitotic nuclear envelope from extended ER cisternae precedes nuclear pore assembly

Abstract During mitosis, the nuclear envelope merges with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and nuclear pore complexes are disassembled. In a current model for reassembly after mitosis, the nuclear envelope forms by a reshaping of ER tubules. For the assembly of pores, two major models have been proposed. In the insertion model, nuclear pore complexes are embedded in the nuclear envelope … Continue reading

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Formation of the postmitotic nuclear envelope from extended ER cisternae precedes nuclear pore assembly

Abstract During mitosis, the nuclear envelope merges with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and nuclear pore complexes are disassembled. In a current model for reassembly after mitosis, the nuclear envelope forms by a reshaping of ER tubules. For the assembly of pores, two major models have been proposed. In the insertion model, nuclear pore complexes are embedded in the nuclear envelope … Continue reading

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igh-resolution mapping reveals topologically distinct cellular pools of phosphatidylserine

Fairn et al. 194 (2): 257 Abstract Phosphatidylserine (PS) plays a central role in cell signaling and in the biosynthesis of other lipids. To date, however, the subcellular distribution and transmembrane topology of this crucial phospholipid remain ill-defined. We transfected cells with a GFP-tagged C2 domain of lactadherin to detect by light and electron microscopy PS exposed on the cytosolic … Continue reading

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FGF and retinoic acid activity gradients control the timing of neural crest cell emigration in the trunk

MartĂ­nez-Morales et al. Abstract Coordination between functionally related adjacent tissues is essential during development. For example, formation of trunk neural crest cells (NCCs) is highly influenced by the adjacent mesoderm, but the molecular mechanism involved is not well understood. As part of this mechanism, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and retinoic acid (RA) mesodermal gradients control the onset of neurogenesis in … Continue reading

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